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Ancient Astronaut Theorists Take Note As Scientists Trace Ancestral Home Of All Humans To Southern Africa



Ancient Astronaut Theorists Take Note As Scientists Trace Ancestral Home Of All Humans To Southern Africa
Photo Credit: History Channel

Mainstream scientists seem to have inadvertently given some support to the ancient astronaut theory again.

Recently, we wrote about a “new” scientific discovery that unlocked the potential of gold atoms, with 2D gold nanosheets. Using layers of gold just two atoms in thickness, the researchers made a “landmark achievement.” The gold nanosheets are ten times more efficient than even nanoparticles as a highly-effective catalyst.

This news immediately sounded familiar to those who follow ancient astronaut theory, since gold is central to the story. According to translations of cuneiform tablets from Sumeria, the Anunnaki, giant-sized long-lived extraterrestrial explorers, came to Earth to mine gold hundreds of thousands of years ago. The gold was essential for technology used to repair damage to the Anunnaki home planet’s environment, among other uses.

The gold mining operations were taking place in southern Africa and predated the earliest civilizations in Sumer and Mesopotamia by unfathomable thousands of years. An in-depth timeline of events is suggested by Zecharia Sitchin and other ancient astronaut theorists.

Today, news that scientists have traced the origins of all humans to southern Africa is again ringing bells for ancient astronaut theorists. According to the Guardian, scientists made eyebrow-raising conclusions using 1,217 samples of mitochondrial DNA from people living in southern Africa.

“Scientists claim to have traced the ancestral home region of all living humans to a vast wetland that sprawled over much of modern day Botswana and served as an oasis in an otherwise parched expanse of Africa.

The swathe of land south of the Zambezi River became a thriving home to Homo sapiens 200,000 years ago, the researchers suggest, and sustained an isolated, founder population of modern humans for at least 70,000 years.”

Zambezi River borders of Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe & Botswana, Aerian photography by Brian McMorrow, borders added by Julieta39 via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.5)
Zambezi River borders of Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe & Botswana, Aerian photography by Brian McMorrow, borders added by Julieta39 via Wikimedia Commons (CC BY-SA 2.5)

According to the article, these early humans then started to spread into other territories as the Earth’s orbit changed. This fact also sounds familiar, as climate changes on Earth were central to Sitchin’s story of what took place some 200,000 years ago. According to the controversial author, life on the planet regressed due to a glacial period and then began to spread as the planet warmed up again after 100,000 years.

Adam’s Calendar

One landmark offered as evidence of an ancient civilization in southern Africa is called “Adam’s Calendar,” a Stonehenge-like ruin discovered in 2003. The place is known by African elders, as the “The Birthplace of The Sun.

Ancient Origins notes it has been controversially called the “oldest man-made structure in the world.

“Located in Mpumalanga, South Africa it is a standing stone circle about 30 meters in diameter and has been estimated by some accounts to be more than 75,000 years old. Various astronomical alignments have been identified at the site and it is possibly the only example of a completely functional, mostly intact megalithic stone calendar in the world,” wrote Ancient Origins.

Stone ruins similar to this are found throughout the mountains and valleys of southern Africa, including Botswana. Like Stonehenge, Adam’s Calendar has incorporated incredibly complex precise measurements.

According to ancient astronaut theorist Graham Hancock, other ancient relics discovered in the area point to connections to the later civilization of Egypt.

“The discovery of a bird statue that resembles Horus carved out of dolerite, a small sphinx about 1,5 metres long carved out of the same dolerite rock, a petroglyph of a winged disk, many carvings of Sumerian crosses in circles and an ankh in a radiating circle suggest that the prototype Sumerian and Egyptian civilisations had their origins in southern Africa thousands of years before they emerged in the north,” wrote Hancock.

Below, megalithic researcher and explorer Hugh Newman, who often appears on the Ancient Aliens series, explores Adam’s Calendar.

Further east to the coast at Maputo, Mozambique, an ancient city was discovered around 2015. According to South African news, a sprawling city made of dolomite rock could date back to 200,000 years old. Author Michael Tellinger wrote about the city in his book: Temples of the African Gods. Nearby, we find ancient gold mines.

I see myself a fairly open-minded chap, but I will admit that it took me well over a year for the penny to drop, and for me to realize that we are actually dealing with the oldest structures ever built by humans on Earth. – said Tellinger”

Below: Evidence of ancient civilization in Maputo, Mozambique.

Evidence of ancient civilization in Maputo, Mozambique

Among the oldest gold mines is Ngwenya Mine in Swaziland. The UNESCO recognized site is “one of the oldest geological formations in the world, and also has the distinction of being the site of the world’s earliest mining activity.

From the UNESCO World Heritage Centre:

“This mine is known to be one of the oldest mines in the world. In 1964 charcoal nodules from the site were sent for radio carbon dating and a date of 43000 BC was obtained, making this one of the oldest known mining operation in the world. However the mine can be older than this date. It is thought this ores were mined until 23000 BC. Ancient mining tools found in the site were more specialised and foreign to those that were found on Stone Age sites.”

So there you have it: Scientists and ancient astronaut theorists seem to have arrived at similar conclusions in this case. Don’t count on seeing it again in the near future, but who knows what could happen next?

You can get the full ancient astronaut take in the video on Adam’s Calendar from South African author, politician, and explorer Michael Tellinger below. He refers to it as “Enki’s Calendar,” after the Sumerian deity who began the gold mining empire.

Anunnaki Family
The Adda Seal, an ancient Akkadian cylinder seal showing (from left to right) Inanna, Utu, Enki, and Isimud (circa 2300 BC) via Wikimedia Commons, public domain.

Video featuring Michael Tellinger below:

This article (Ancient Astronaut Theorists Take Note As Scientists Trace Ancestral Home Of All Humans To Southern Africa) was originally published at Ancient Code and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.

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Tomb Of Romulus, King Raised By A Wolf, Possibly Found In Roman Forum!



Photo Credit: Ivan Kurmyshov / Adobe Stock

Ashley Cowie, Ancient Origins

Archaeologists have unearthed a tomb beneath the Roman Forum that they think, might be the resting place of the legendary Romulus, founder of Rome.

In Roman mythology, Romulus and his twin brother Remus were sons of Rhea Silvia, but Amulius, king of Alba Longa, ordered that the infants, twin grandnephews, be murdered. Their mother placed her twins in a basket on the River Tiber and under a fig tree, a she-wolf suckled and raised the brothers.

When the boys grew up and learned of their true ancestry they overthrew Amulius but Romulus later killed Remus in a fight on what became Palatine Hill in 753 BC. And now, archaeologists think they might have found the burial place of Romulus , the founder and first king of Rome.

An Extraordinary Discovery For Rome

The ancient tomb was discovered in an underground temple buried beneath the entrance stairway to the curia in the Roman Forum in an area that archaeologists know was devoted to the legendary 6th century BC king, Romulus. The rock sarcophagus measures 4.6 feet (1.4 meters) long and the director of the Colosseum Archaeological Park  Alfonsina Russo told  The Times that the discovery was “extraordinary.

The rock sarcophagus found in what is believed to be Romulus’ tomb was discovered buried beneath the entrance stairway to the curia. ( Noppasinw / Adobe Stock)
The rock sarcophagus found in what is believed to be Romulus’ tomb was discovered buried beneath the entrance stairway to the curia. ( Noppasinw / Adobe Stock)

According to Fox News , Mayor Virginia Raggi was so impressed with the discovery that she thanked the team of scientists who conducted the research in a Tweet reading:

“Rome always marvels with its treasures. Inside the Roman Forum new exciting archaeological discovery: a hypogeum with a tuff sarcophagus from the 6th century BC. Thanks to a team of scholars who conducted the research.”

The discovery will be officially unveiled by the Colosseum Archaeological Park this coming Friday however, no human remains were discovered inside the coffin making it difficult to verify the claims that it was the burial tomb of the founder and first king of Rome – Romulus.

Peeling Back The Forum’s Layers

The Roman Forum is situated between  Palatine Hill and Capitoline Hill and this vast rectangular plaza was surrounded by important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. According to Horace Marucchi’s 1906 work,  The Roman Forum and the Palatine According to the Latest Discoveries , the forum began with an alliance between Romulus, the first king of Rome controlling the Palatine Hill, and his rival Titus Tatius who occupied the  Capitoline Hill .

Rendering of the Roman Forum as it may have appeared during the Late Empire. (Angerdan / CC BY-SA 3.0 )
Rendering of the Roman Forum as it may have appeared during the Late Empire. (Angerdan / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

Historians believe people first began meeting in the forum around 500 BC when the Roman Republic was founded and the grandest building is the Temple of Julius Caesar which was built in the years after this legendary leader was murdered in 44 BC. According to Andreas Steiner, editor of the magazine Archeo, the newly discovered underground temple was found buried near “the Lapis Niger”, which is an ancient black shrine in the Roman Forum beneath the entrance stairway to the curia.

Beneath The Black Shrine Of The Ancient Occultists

The curia housed assemblies, councils, and courts in which public, official, and religious issues were discussed, especially by the senate. Ms. Russo told press that the temple’s altar had been positioned where “ancient Romans believed Romulus was buried”, but no bones were found inside the coffin to verify if the tomb belonged to King Romulus.

The Lapis Niger (Black Stone) shrine in the Roman Forum was rediscovered and excavated from 1899 to 1905 by Italian archaeologist Giacomo Boni and this ancient shrine is the only surviving remnants of the old Comitium, an early archaic cult site of the 7th or 8th century BC, predating the forum. The location is mentioned in the earliest writings as a suggestum where the early kings of Rome communicated with crowds at the forum and to the senate.

Drawing of the excavated Lapis Niger in the Roman Forum. (Vittalio / Public Domain )
Drawing of the excavated Lapis Niger in the Roman Forum. (Vittalio / Public Domain )

An ancient altar and stone block holds one of the earliest known Latin inscriptions (c. 570–550 BC) and includes the word rex: meaning either “a king” or to the rex sacrorum, a high religious official, and a Greek inscription stating the sacred ground “must not be disturbed”. According to De Verborum Significatione, ancient Romans believed the Lapis Niger marked either the grave of the first king of Rome, Romulus, or the spot where he was slain by the senate, or the location where Faustulus, the foster father of Romulus fell in battle.

Reproduction of the Lapis Niger stone block with the inscription in Old Latin. (Sailko / CC BY-SA 3.0 )
Reproduction of the Lapis Niger stone block with the inscription in Old Latin. (Sailko / CC BY-SA 3.0 )

This article (Tomb of Romulus, King Raised By A Wolf, Possibly Found in Roman Forum!) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Ghost DNA Shows Human Ancestors Interbred With Mysterious Unknown Hominins



Ghost DNA Shows Human Ancestors Interbred With Mysterious Unknown Hominins
Photo Credit: Mint Press News

Paul SeaburnMysterious Universe

DNA ancestry tests were a popular Christmas gift in 2018 but not so much during the 2019 holidays, according to the latest reports. While the general public (at least in the U.S.) have moved on to the next shiny object (concerned about the privacy and lack of real usefulness of the tests), a group of West Africans who participated in a worldwide genome project searching for evidence of ancient ancestors in modern humans learned that they possess a “ghost DNA” of a mysterious, ancient hominin … one who apparently had a lot of interbreeding relations with the ancestors of modern humans. Could this explain everything? Anything? Will it help sales of DNA tests?

“While introgression from Neanderthals and Denisovans has been documented in modern humans outside Africa, the contribution of archaic hominins to the genetic variation of present-day Africans remains poorly understood. We provide complementary lines of evidence for archaic introgression into four West African populations. Our analyses of site frequency spectra indicate that these populations derive 2 to 19% of their genetic ancestry from an archaic population that diverged before the split of Neanderthals and modern humans.”

In a study published in the journal Science Advances, Sriram Sankararaman, an assistant professor at UCLA in the Computer Science and Human Genetics departments, explains how he and his team examined the genomes of 405 West Africans currently living in Nigeria, Gambia, and Sierra Leone using DNA in collected between 2008 and 2015 as part of the 1,000 Genomes project to find genetic variants with frequencies of at least 1% in the populations studied. While they knew that modern West Africans do not have any Neanderthal or Denisovan ancestry, they were shocked to find a single mysterious ancient hominin whose DNA made up as much as 19% of the genes of those tested.

“We don’t have a clear identity for this archaic group. That’s why we use the term ‘ghost.’ It doesn’t seem to be particularly closely related to the groups from which we have genome sequences from.”

Sankararaman told NPR this interbreeding occurred about 50,000 years ago, after humans and Neanderthals split and the latter left for Europe. The ghost group then split off from humans and did some interbreeding before they disappeared, either becoming extinct or being completely assimilated into the human group. Some of the West Africans tested showed minute percentages of Neanderthal DNA, but the researchers believe this came from later Neanderthals who moved back to Africa or modern humans who have interbred with Neanderthals in Europe and then returned to Africa. That’s a LOT of interbreeding. Does it mean anything?

“Are they just randomly floating in our genomes? Do they have any kind of adaptive benefits? Do they have deleterious consequences? Those are all questions which would be fantastic to start thinking about.”

According to his interview in Inverse, Sankararaman isn’t sure. In fact, he’s uncertain if this was one ghost group or many, nor does he know what happened to them. Unlike the Neanderthals and Denisovans, fossil evidence of these species has not been found – even in fossil-rich Africa where so many remnants of ancient human ancestors have been discovered.

A skull would help
A skull would help

What’s known for certain from this ghost DNA Is that this mysterious group played a big part in the early history of at least four groups of modern West Africans. That’s the kind of information that made DNA testing interesting to begin with.

Would you want to find out your ancestors were a mysterious group that liked to play the ancient field?

About the Author

Paul Seaburn is the editor at Mysterious Universe and its most prolific writer. He’s written for TV shows such as “The Tonight Show”, “Politically Incorrect” and an award-winning children’s program. He’s been published in “The New York Times” and “Huffington Post” and has co-authored numerous collections of trivia, puzzles and humor. His “What in the World!” podcast is a fun look at the latest weird and paranormal news, strange sports stories and odd trivia. Paul likes to add a bit of humor to each MU post he crafts. After all, the mysterious doesn’t always have to be serious.   

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Newly Discovered Older Cousin Of T. Rex Is So Badass It’s Been Named After Death Itself



Newly Discovered Older Cousin Of T. Rex Is So Badass It’s Been Named After Death Itself
Photo Credit: Live Science

Scientists said Monday they had discovered a new species of dinosaur closely related to Tyrannosaurus Rex that strode the plain of North America some 80 million years ago.

Thanatotheristes Degrootorum – Greek for “Reaper of Death” – is thought to be the oldest member of the T. Rex family yet discovered in northern North America, and would have grown to around eight metres (26 feet) in length.

We chose a name that embodies what this Tyrannosaur was as the only known large apex predator of its time in Canada, the reaper of death,” Darla Zelenitsky, assistant professor of Dinosaur Palaeobiology at Canada’s University of Calgary.

The nickname has come to be Thanatos,” she told AFP.

Whereas T. Rex – the most famous of all dinosaur species, immortalised in Steven Spielberg’s 1993 epic Jurassic Park – stalked its prey around 66 million years ago, Thanatos dates back at least 79 million years, the team said.

The specimen was discovered by Jared Voris, a PhD student at Calgary, and is the first new Tyrannosaur species found for 50 years in Canada.

There are very few species of Tyrannosaurids, relatively speaking,” said Zelenitsky, co-author of the study that appeared in the journal Cretaceous Research.

“Because of the nature of the food chain these large apex predators were rare compared to herbivorous or plant-eating dinosaurs.”

Artist's impression of Thanatos's head. (Julius Csotonyi/The University of Calgary/Royal Tyrrell Museum/AFP)
Artist’s impression of Thanatos’s head. (Julius Csotonyi/The University of Calgary/Royal Tyrrell Museum/AFP)

The study found that Thanatos had a long, deep snout, similar to more primitive Tyrannosaurs that lived in the southern United States.

The researchers suggested that the difference in Tyrannosaur skull shapes between regions could have been down to differences in diet, and dependant on the prey available at the time.

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The Legendary Tower Of Babel: What Does It Mean?



Photo Credit: Wikipedia

Ḏḥwty, Ancient Origins

One of the many fantastic stories in the Book of Genesis is the Tower of Babel, a tall construction made in Babylonia after the Deluge. The gist of the story is: All human beings used to speak the same language. As they came to settle in Mesopotamia, they decided to build a city with a tower to reach the heavens. Through this endeavour, mankind intended to create a name for himself. God, however, had other plans. Mankind’s language was confused, and they were scattered over the earth. As a result, the city and the tower were never completed. Regardless of whether you believe this story actually took place, there are several interesting ways of looking at it.

A Literal Approach to the Tower of Babel Story

One way of approaching the story is the literal approach. If one accepts that the Tower of Babel was a historical fact, then it would be expected that some sort of remains or ruins of the tower would exist. This, however, has not been identified by archaeology. The closest candidate for the Tower of Babel may perhaps be the Etemenanki of Babylon. This was a ziggurat dedicated to Marduk, the patron god of Babylon. It has been claimed that this structure was the inspiration for the Tower of Babel. Given that ziggurats were found in Mesopotamia, the setting of the story, and that they were monumental structures, it is not too difficult to see how they may have been used in the story of the Tower of Babel.

Did the Tower of Babel Exist?

In 2017, Andrew George, a professor of Babylonia at the University of London, reported that he believes he has found solid evidence for the Tower of Babel in an ancient baked tablet from the city of Babylon. The baked clay tablet shows what the ziggurat looked like, with its seven steps. It shows the king with his conical hat and staff. And below is text that describes the commissioning of the tower’s construction.

Dr. George said:

“This is a very strong piece of evidence that the tower of Babel story was inspired by this real building. At the top … there is a relief depicting a step tower and … a figure of a human being carrying a staff with a conical hat on. Below that relief is a text which has been chiseled into the monument, and the label is easily read. It reads: Etemenanki, Ziggurat Babel. And that means ‘the Ziggurat or Temple Tower of the City of Babylon.’ The building and its builder on the same relief.”

The people enlisted to construct the tower, are translated by Dr. George as, “From the Upper Sea [Mediterranean] to the Lower Sea [Persian Gulf] the Far-Flung Lands and Teeming Peoples of the Habitations.”

Experts had already thought King Nebuchadnezzar II actually did build a ziggurat in Babylonia after he established the city as his capital. The tablet provides more evidence. Archaeologists also think the tower of Babel was 300 feet (91 meters) along the sides and 300 feet (91 meters) tall. Only a fraction of the building remains, scattered and broken.

What Does the Tower of Babel Symbolize?

Regardless of the question of the tower’s existence, another way to examine the Tower of Babel story is through the symbolic approach. The context of the story, i.e. the story of the Tower of Babel being recorded in the Book of Genesis, would make it reasonable to expect a religious message behind it. It has been suggested that the Tower of Babel is a symbol for humanity’s vanity. For instance, the use of brick and mortar represent pride in man-made materials. Thus, the use of these materials over stone and tar, which are natural and more durable materials, may be read as mankind’s misplaced confidence in his own abilities.

Thus, the Tower of Babel may be seen as a monument to mankind’s ability and achievement. Man is promptly reminded of his frailty when God decides to confuse their languages and scatter them. While some regard this story as a warning against the sin of pride, others would prefer to question the kind of God that is being portrayed in the story. Regardless, the story seems to convey a notion of doom and gloom for humanity.

Gustave Dore's depiction of the Tower of Babel according to the biblical interpretation. ( Public Domain )
Gustave Dore’s depiction of the Tower of Babel according to the biblical interpretation. ( Public Domain )
Can the Tower of Babel Explain Worldwide Diversity?

Another way of viewing this story, however, may shine a more positive light on the Tower of Babel. Instead of being a lesson against pride, this may be a tool to explain the diversity of peoples in the world. After all, the chapter preceding the story of the Tower of Babel deals with the various nations that descended from the sons of Noah. This etiological approach, in which myths are used to explain human conditions, is visible in many other cultures. For instance, in the mythology of the Blackfoot Indians; Old Man, the creator, gave different colored water to people to drink. As a result, different peoples began to speak different languages. Without the knowledge that we possess today, these myths would have served to throw light on the great mysteries of life. Besides, they make pretty good camp-fire stories.

Although language was confused, and mankind scattered across the world, I can’t help but think that we’ve come full circle, almost at least. Take this article as an example. It will probably be read by people from different parts of the world. In that sense, we are connected, rather than scattered. Also, through translations, we are able to overcome language barriers. Moreover, at times we may even communicate through empathy, without the need for speech.

Yet, there’s one part of the story we have not achieved. The people in the story of the Tower of Babel were working together to build a monument. Sadly, human beings aren’t quite doing that today. Wars, the exploitation of the poor, and human trafficking are just some examples of the ways in which we are destroying our fellow man/woman, instead of cooperating with him/her.

Perhaps it’s time we finish building the Tower of Babel.

This article (The Legendary Tower of Babel: What Does It Mean?) was originally created for Ancient Origins and is published here under Creative Commons.

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