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Ancient Sumer, The Anunnaki, And The Ancient Alien Theory

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Photo Credit: Ancient Code

Stephen D. Foster Jr.Ancient Code

Sumer is a historical region of the Middle East, the southern part of ancient Mesopotamia, between the alluvial plains of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers.

The Sumerian civilization is considered, according to many authors, as the first and oldest civilization on the surface of the planet, even though there is evidence that the Vinca Culture from Europe is older.

Although the origin of its inhabitants, the Sumerians, is uncertain, there are numerous hypotheses as to where they came from.

The ancient Sumerians were the first people who started building actually organized cities laid out using actual city grids like we see in modern-day cities around the world.

The ancient inhabitants of Mesopotamia invented sewer systems, cobblestones -frequently used in the pavement of early streets, and they were also taught in Agriculture, but most importantly they were the first civilization that invented the first known writing system by using the cuneiform script on clay tablets. This entire cultural and technological boom came basically out of nowhere. The biggest issue is their origin, as experts cannot agree from where these people came from.

Four copper-alloy foundation figures dating to c. 2130 BC, depicting four ancient Mesopotamian gods, wearing characteristic horned crowns[. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.

It seems plausible that the Sumerians were a tribe that came from elsewhere, possibly from the steppes, but their exact origin is unknown. This historic issue is referred to, since the twentieth century as the “Sumerian problem.”

In any case, it is during the Ubaid period when there are advances that crystallize in the Uruk period, and that serve to consider this moment as the beginning of the Sumerian civilization.

Some scholars also postulate that the Sumerians established in Mesopotamia, would not have an autochthonous origin, but would come from the culture that founded the city of Mohenjo-Daro (which existed between 2600 BC and 1800 BC) in India.

Wherever they may have come from, they were one of the most advanced ancient civilizations to live on Earth, and history tells us many interesting facts and stories about the Sumerians. Even today experts still do not have a complete picture that could tell them everything about the people that once inhabited the region of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.

The Ubaid Period; The Start of Civilization? 

The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia. The name derives from Tell al-`Ubaid where the earliest large excavation of Ubaid period material was conducted initially by Henry Hall and later by Leonard Woolley.

Divided into four main phases, and spreading from Eridu, the Ubaid culture extended from the Middle of the Tigris and Euphrates to the shores of the Persian Gulf, and then spread down past Bahrain to the copper deposits at Oman.

 Akkadian cylinder seal dating to c. 2300 BC depicting the deities Inanna, Utu, and Enki, three members of the Anunnaki. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.
Akkadian cylinder seal dating to c. 2300 BC depicting the deities Inanna, Utu, and Enki, three members of the Anunnaki. Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.
The First City On Earth

According to the Sumerian King List Eridu was the first city in the World. The opening line reads:

“[nam]-lugal an-ta èd-dè-a-ba

[eri]duki nam-lugal-la”

“When kingship from heaven was lowered, the kingship was in Eridu.”

As noted by Sumerian mythology, the ancient city of Eridu was ONE of the FIVE ancient cities built on Earth before the great deluge.

Eridu was the most southern city of the conglomerate of Mesopotamia and important center of the cult to the God of the water, Enki.

The Sumerian King List; When Gods Ruled The Earth

One of the most valuable artifacts discovered from the Sumerian Civilization is the so-called Sumerian King List.

This ancient text describes in great detail a time when Earth was ruled by beings referred to as ‘Gods’ for thousands of years.

The list composed in Ancient Sumerian offers details about numerous generations of kings that ruled over the land of ancient Sumer. The list not only offers us their names, but it details their supposed length and location of Kingship.

“…Alulim became king; he ruled for 28800 years. Alaljar ruled for 36000 years. 2 kings; they ruled for 64800 years. Then Eridug fell and the kingship was taken to Bad-tibira. In Bad-tibira, En-men-lu-ana ruled for 43200 years…”

Zecharia Sitchin posing with an enlarged photograph of a Sumerian cylinder seal impression.Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.
Zecharia Sitchin posing with an enlarged photograph of a Sumerian cylinder seal impression.Image Credit: Wikimedia Commons.
The Ancient Astronaut Theory; The Anunnaki Gods

As noted by the ancient astronaut theory, thousands of years ago, even before recorded history, our planet was visited by astronauts from another world. Extremely advanced beings with technology beyond our own today came to Earth and helped kick-start modern civilization.

In the 19th century archaeologists exploring the ancient ruins of Nineveh discovered 22,000 clay tablets. After translation, these tablets showed amazing similar stories to those found in the Judeo-Christian Bible.

We find stories of the great flood in these tablets and we can even read of Adam and Eve so basically all of these stories have precedence with the ancient Sumerians.

In 1976 author Zecharia Sitchin published his personal translations of the Sumerian texts in a series of books called “The Earth Chronicles“.

According to Sitchin, the clay tablets describe an alien race known as the Anunnaki who came to Earth to mine gold.

Sitchin practically suggests that extraterrestrial visited earth in the past because their home-planet needed gold to survive. The gold deposits in their atmosphere were depleting so they came to Earth, mined old and took it back to their planet to save it.

Today, numerous authors around the world believe Sitchin was right, despite the fact that mainstream scholars completely disagree with his theories.

Ancient Astronaut theorists agree that based on numerous archaeological discoveries: artifacts, records and monuments found in the past by experts, it is believed that the Anunnaki (Sumerian: “those who came down from the heavens), an extremely advanced civilization from an elusive planet in our solar system, came to Earth, landing in the Persian Gulf some 432,000 years ago.

 Based on The Cosmic Code: The Sixth Book of The Earth Chronicles by Zecharia Sitchin, this is the real historical timeline of our planet:
Based on The Cosmic Code: The Sixth Book of The Earth Chronicles by Zecharia Sitchin, this is the real historical timeline of our planet:
Events Before the Deluge

450,000 years ago:

On Nibiru, a distant member of our solar system, life faces slow extinction as the planet’s atmosphere erodes. Deposed by Anu, the ruler Alalu escapes in a spaceship and finds refuge on Earth. He discovers that Earth has gold that can be used to protect Nibiru’s atmosphere.

445,000
Led by Enki, a son of Anu, the Anunnaki land on Earth, establish Eridu -Earth Station I – for extracting gold from the waters of the Persian Gulf.

430,000
Earth’s climate mellows. More Anunnaki arrive on Earth, among them Enki’s half-sister Ninhursag, Chief Medical Officer.

416,000
As gold production falters, Anu arrives on Earth with Enlil, the heir apparent. It is decided to obtain the vital gold by mining it in southern Africa. Drawing lots, Enlil wins command of Earth Mission; Enki is relegated to Africa. On departing Earth, Anu is challenged by Alalu’s grandson.

400,000
Seven functional settlements in southern Mesopotamia include a Spaceport (Sippar), Mission Control Center (Nippur), a metallurgical center (Shuruppak). The ores arrive by ships from Africa; the refined metal is sent aloft to orbiters manned by Igigi, then transferred to spaceships arriving periodically from Nibiru.

380,000
Gaining the support of the Igigi, Alalu’s grandson attempts to seize mastery over Earth. The Enlilites win the War of the Olden Gods.

300,000
The Anunnaki toiling in the gold mines mutiny. Enki and Ninhursag create Primitive Workers through genetic manipulation of Ape woman; they take over the manual chores of the Anunnaki. Enlil raids the mines, brings the Primitive Workers to the Edin in Mesopotamia. Given the ability to procreate, Homo Sapiens begins to multiply.

200,000
Life on Earth regresses during a new glacial period.

100,000
Climate warms again. The Anunnaki (the biblical Nefilim), to Enlil’s growing annoyance, marry the daughters of Man.

75,000
The “accursation of Earth” – a new Ice Age-begins. Regressive types of Man roam the Earth. Cro-Magnon man survives.

49,000
Enki and Ninhursag elevate humans of Anunnaki parentage to rule in Shuruppak. Enlil enraged. Plots Mankind’s demise.

13,000
Realizing that the passage of Nibiru in Earth’s proximity will trigger an immense tidal wave, Enlil makes the Anunnaki swear to keep the impending calamity a secret from Mankind.

This article (Ancient Sumer, The Anunnaki, And The Ancient Alien Theory) was originally created for Ancient Code and is published here under Creative Commons.

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A Description Of The Lost Land Of Atlantis & The Reason For Its Downfall – According To Plato

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A Description Of The Lost Land Of Atlantis & The Reason For Its Downfall – According To Plato
Photo Credit: Ancient Code

Advanced ancient civilizations are a big topic of interest among researchers, historians, archaeologists, and scientists. Every single year we are gifted with a mysterious find that has us questioning the origins of the human race and imagining the cultures which roamed our planet before us. We have found much evidence to suggest that there may have been civilizations in existence before us which were intellectually, and even technologically superior. That being said, this theory is still thought to be quite fantastical; despite all of the evidence which has been brought to light in recent years to support this notion, it is still largely ignored by the mainstream. If you are interested in looking at some of this evidence, a great place to start is with author Graham Hancock, in his book titled The Magicians of The Gods.

Atlantis

If you start talking about the lost, ancient city of Atlantis, most people will probably think that you’re living in ‘la la’ land. Many people are unaware that this city has been seriously studied for hundreds of years. For example, we can see that it was a subject of significant importance for researchers at the Smithsonian Institution, as emphasized by their Annual Report of the Board of Regents of The Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30th, 1915.

In the report, author M. Pierre Termeir, a member of the Academy of Sciences and Director of Service of the Geologic Chart of France, gives a lecture regarding the Atlantean civilization.  He makes a compelling case for further study of this lost city:

“After a long period of disdainful indifference, observe how in the last few years science is returning to the study of Atlantis. How many naturalists, geologists, zoologists, or botanists are asking one another today whether Plato has not transmitted to us, with slight amplification, a page from the actual history of mankind? No affirmation is yet permissible; but it seems more and more evident that a vast region, continental or made up of great islands, has collapsed west of the Pillars of Hercules, otherwise called the Straight of Gibraltar, and that its collapse occurred in the not far distant past. In any event, the question of Atlantis is placed anew before men of science; and since I do not believe that it can ever be solved without the aid of oceanography, I have thought it natural to discuss it here, in this temple of maritime science, and to call to such a problem, long scorned but now being revived, the attention of oceanographers, as well as the attention of those who, though immersed in the tumult of cities, lend an ear to the distant murmur of the sea.”

You can read this full report here, starting on page 219.

In his lecture, M. Termeir goes on to present zoologic, geographic, and geologic data to support the existence of the lost Atlantean civilization. Not only that, archaeological discoveries on the ocean floor have also raised some questions…

Plato’s Description of Atlantis

Plato, the ancient Greek philosopher, provides a description of Atlantis in his dialogue Critias, which was never completed. The following is a summary of his depiction, these are a few of many points I am taking from Manly P. HallsThe Secret Teachings of All Ages

  • Atlantis was inhabited by ‘earth-born’ and ‘primitive’ human beings. One of them was wooed by the god Poseidon, who interbred with the human beings, and they eventually bore five children. This interbreeding between gods and humans is a common theme in many historical texts found throughout the world.
  • The land was divided into concentric zones of land and water. Two zones of land and three zones of water surrounded the central island, which had warm springs of water and cold springs of water.
  • Atlantis became an established country, with a wise government and an industry that sprung them to advanced technological heights — beyond even what we have reached today.
  • Atlantis had limitless resources, wild animals, and precious metals, and was heavily populated.
  • Atlantis was full of large and beautiful palaces, temples, docks, and a network of various bridges and canals that united different sections of the kingdom.
  • White, black and red stones were used in the construction of public buildings. “They circumscribed each of the land zones with a wall, the outer wall being covered with brass, the middle with tin, and the inner, which encompassed the citadel, with orichalch. The citadel, on the central island, contained the palaces, temples, and other public buildings. In its center, surrounded by a wall of gold, was a sanctuary dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon.” (source)
  • Atlantis had a number of gardens, full of hot and cold springs. There were countless temples, public baths, and exercise facilities for both man and animal.
  • “The part of Atlantis facing the sea was described as lofty and precipitous, but about the central city was a plain sheltered by mountains renowned for their size, number, and beauty. The plain yielded two crops each year, in the winter being watered by rains and in the summer by immense irrigation canals, which were also used for transportation. The plain was divided into sections and in time of war each section supplied its quota of fighting men and chariots.” (source)
  • Atlantis was massive, ruled by multiple kings who all had control over their land. Their relationships with the other kings were governed by an original code of ethics that was engraved by the first ten kings. “The chief laws of the Atlantean kings were that they should not take up arms against each other and that they should come to the assistance of any of their number who was attacked.” (source)
The Downfall of Atlantis

These are the essential points Plato makes about Atlantis. He described it as a great and powerful empire, almost magical, and said that this was the same empire which attacked the Hellenic states. He attributes the power and glory they tasted after this venture to their eventual demise, writing that the love for these ego-driven desires that soon developed among Atlantean kings “lured” them from “the pathway of wisdom and virtue.”

 “Filled with false ambition, the rulers of Atlantis determined to conquer the gods into his holy habitation and addressed them. Here Plato’s narrative comes to an abrupt end, for the Critias was never finished.” (source)

Plato also tackles the subject of Atlantis in his Timaeus, writing of a story told by Solon — who himself is said to have heard the story in Egypt, passed on to him by a priest via hieroglyphic inscriptions in a temple in Sais — in which a violent cataclysm sank the continent. Thus, the Island of Atlantis completely disappeared. (source)

A technologically sophisticated but morally bankrupt evil empire – Atlantis – attempts world domination by force. The only thing standing it its way is a relatively small group of spiritually pure, morally principled and incorruptible people – the ancient Athenians. Overcoming overwhelming odds . . . the Athenians are able to defeat their far more powerful adversary simply through the force of their spirit. Sound familiar? Plato’s Atlantean dialogues are essentially an ancient Greek version of ‘Star Wars.’ ” – Ken Feder, professor of archaeology, taken from his book “Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology.”

The Egyptian connection is also interesting to bring up here because Crantor, another ancient Greek philosopher, asserted that the Egyptian priests declared the story of Atlantis to be written upon pillars which were still preserved circa 300 B.C.

Manly P. Hall has noted that, before this cataclysm, a portion of the population left and did not succumb to the egoistic tendencies which apparently led to the downfall of Atlantis. Was the philosophic, religious, and scientific knowledge of Atlantis passed on? There are many similarities between the reported teachings of Atlantis and those of other cultures, such as the Mayas of Central America.

According to Manly P. Hall, from the Atlanteans, “the world received not only the heritage of arts and crafts, philosophies, and sciences, ethics and religions, but also the heritage of hate, strife, and perversion. The Atlanteans instigated the first war; and it has been said that all subsequent wars were fought in a fruitless effort to justify the first one and right the wrong which it caused.” (source)

“Before Atlantis sank, its spiritually illuminated Initiates, who realized that their land was doomed because it had departed from the Path of Light, withdrew from the ill-fated continent. Carrying with them the sacred and secret doctrine, these Atlanteans established themselves in Egypt, where they became its first divine rulers. Nearly all the great cosmologic myths forming the foundation of the various sacred books of the world are based upon the Atlantean Mystery Rituals.” (source)

One of the most interesting parts of this story, to me, is the fact that this place is often remembered as a place of glory, light, and abundance, which it was. But they were not immune to the dangers of avarice, either, as H.P. Blavatsky makes clear: “Under the evil insinuations of their demon, Thevatat, the Atlantis race became a nation of wicked magicians. In consequence of this, war was declared, the story of which would be too long to narrate; its substance may be found in the disfigured allegories of the race of Cain, the giants, and that of Noah and his righteous family. The conflict came to an end by the submersion of the Atlantis, which finds its imitation in the stories of the Babylonian and Mosaic flood.” (source)

This article (A Description of the Lost Land of Atlantis & The Reason For Its Downfall – According To Plato) was originally created for Collective Evolution and is published here under Creative Commons.

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Eridu: The Sumerian Garden Of Eden & The Oldest City In The World?

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Eridu: The Sumerian Garden of Eden and the Oldest City in the World?
Photo Credit: Ancient Origins

Wu Mingren, Ancient Origins

Today, Eridu is often considered to be one of the oldest permanent settlements in Mesopotamia, and perhaps even in the world. The ancient Sumerians also believed that Eridu was the first city in the world and they documented that belief in the Sumerian King List and the Eridu Genesis . At least 18 layers of settlement are found at the site, so could the ancient Sumerian belief be possible?

Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest structures date to the 6th millennium BC. The city reached its zenith during the 4th millennium BC and continued to be inhabited until around the 7th century BC. By then, however, the city had lost its importance. 

Some of the baked bricks used in the construction of the Sumerian ziggurat at Eridu, southwest of Nasiriyah, Iraq, are stamped with the name of King Ur-Nammu (2123-2106 BC). (David Stanley/ CC BY 2.0 )
Some of the baked bricks used in the construction of the Sumerian ziggurat at Eridu, southwest of Nasiriyah, Iraq, are stamped with the name of King Ur-Nammu (2123-2106 BC). (David Stanley/ CC BY 2.0 )
A Tell of 18 Levels

Eridu (known today as Tell Abu Shahrain) is located about 20 km (12.5 miles) to the southwest of the famous city of Ur. As its modern name indicates, the archaeological site is a tell, which is a huge mound formed over the millennia as a result of new settlements being built over the ruins of the previous ones. The tell rises to a height to 7 meters (23 feet), and is formed by 18 levels of occupation, according to the archaeological excavations. The bulk of this has been dated to the Ubaid and Uruk periods, which lasted from the 6th to 4th millennia BC.

The ruins of Eridu in 2011. (Ltybcc1/ CC BY SA 3.0 )
The ruins of Eridu in 2011. (Ltybcc1/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

The ancient Sumerians themselves made mention of Eridu’s antiquity. In the Sumerian King List , for example, it is written that “After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug.” In addition, in the creation myth known as the Eridu Genesis , it is said to have been one of the five cities that existed before the Deluge, the others being Bad-Tibira, Larak, Sippar, and Suruppak. 

The God of Eridu Temple

The patron god of Eridu was Enki (known also in Akkadian as Ea), the god of water. According to Sumerian mythology, the settlement was founded by Enki, and it was from this city that civilization was spread to other parts of the land. Although Enki was initially a local god, he rose in importance as the city grew in influence, resulting in him being incorporated into the pantheon of other cities as well. In Eridu, Enki’s temple is known as E-Abzu (Abzu may be translated as ‘Deep Ocean’, and refers to the underground spring from which all life is believed to have begun).

Rough map of the Eridu mound showing the main ziggurat, temple, and a few buildings. (Cush/ CC BY SA 3.0 )
Rough map of the Eridu mound showing the main ziggurat, temple, and a few buildings. (Cush/ CC BY SA 3.0 )

Archaeological excavations of the E-Abzu have revealed that the temple began as a small room containing what has been referred to by scholars as a ‘cult niche’ and an ‘offering table’. Over the millennia, however, the inhabitants built new temples over the ruins of the old ones, each bigger than the last. The E-Abzu eventually became a large ziggurat, an apt reflection of Enki’s status as a major deity. It has been proposed that the E-Abzu may have been the largest of the ancient Mesopotamian ziggurats.

Economic Activities

Although the E-Abzu is the focal point of the site’s archaeology, there are either elements of interest. More recent excavations, for instance, have revealed that during the Ubaid period, the city was a pottery production center. This is evident in the pottery works, which had large scatterings of pottery fragments and kiln waste. Additionally, remains of fishing nets, weights, and even models of reed boats have been found at the site, suggesting that fishing was a major economic activity carried out by the inhabitants.

There are nine lines of cuneiform inscriptions on this fired clay brick; stamp of the king Amar-Sin (Amar-Suen, previously misread as Bur-Sin), king of Ur. 2100-2000 BC. From Eridu (modern-day Tell Abu Shahrain), southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. It is currently housed in the British Museum in London. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)/ CC BY SA 4.0 )
There are nine lines of cuneiform inscriptions on this fired clay brick; stamp of the king Amar-Sin (Amar-Suen, previously misread as Bur-Sin), king of Ur. 2100-2000 BC. From Eridu (modern-day Tell Abu Shahrain), southern Mesopotamia, Iraq. It is currently housed in the British Museum in London. (Osama Shukir Muhammed Amin FRCP(Glasg)/ CC BY SA 4.0 )

Eridu was the dominant city in southern Mesopotamia during the Ubaid period, but it was eventually superseded by Uruk. Nevertheless, it continued to be revered as the first city, and it retained its religious significance thanks to the E-Abzu.

It has been suggested that ecological changes, i.e. the recession of the gulf coast and the increasingly unreliable water table, were responsible for the decline of Eridu around the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The city continued to be inhabited up until around the 7th century BC, although by then it had become a mere shadow of its former glory.

In 2016, Eridu was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the ‘Ahwar of Southern Iraq: Refuge of Biodiversity and the Relict Landscape of the Mesopotamian Cities’.

This article (Eridu: The Sumerian Garden Of Eden And The Oldest City In The World?) was originally published at Ancient Origins and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.

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Ancient Egyptian North Star Eclipsed By Astronomical Discovery

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Photo Credit: Aliaksei/Adobe Stock

Ashley Cowie, Ancient Origins

The star used by ancient Egyptians as their North Star has just been discovered to be one part of a pair of binary stars that periodically eclipse one another, according to NASA scientists.

The team’s astronomical findings were  published Oct. 31, 2019 in the Research Notes of the American Astronomical Society (AAS). Using NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS), astronomers found that from Earth‘s perspective, Thuban, and its fainter companion star, pass in front of each other (eclipse) every 51.4 days at an average distance of about 38 million miles apart.

Also known as Alpha Draconis, the star is located 270 light-years from Earth in the constellation of  Draco, the dragon , and Thuban is estimated to be five times brighter and nearly double the size of its stellar companion, and while it is not a particularly bright star to us it held a special place in the hearts of ancient stargazers.

Stella pyramid alignments. ( Aliaksei / Adobe Stock)
Stella pyramid alignments. ( Aliaksei / Adobe Stock)
Ancient Dragon Star of The Egyptians

Caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and the Moon on the Earth the 26,000-year-long precession cycle determines which star is seen at the north celestial pole at any given time. Several historical sources claim Thuban lay almost exactly at the north celestial pole in the year 2787 BC and this can be confirmed with modern astronomical models. Thuban, therefore, as a part of the constellation ‘Draco’, the Dragon, lay at the fixed celestial North Pole when the Egyptians were building the pyramids.

In the 1960s, the so-called ‘air shafts’ in the Great Pyramid of Giza, that were once thought to serve for ventilation as the pyramids were being built, were found to align to the star Thuban at the north celestial pole, around which the heavens appeared to turn. And now, scientists find as the dragon star flies around the universe at a certain stage in its cycle, viewed from Earth, it is eclipsed by another star.

Thuban or Alpha Draconis (shown here in an image of the northern sky) was the North Star at the time of the building of the pyramids. ( NASA)
Thuban or Alpha Draconis (shown here in an image of the northern sky) was the North Star at the time of the building of the pyramids. ( NASA)
How Did We Miss This?

In a NASA statement, scientist Dr. Angela Kochoska, a postdoctoral researcher at Villanova University in Pennsylvania, says the first question that comes to mind is “how did we miss this?” And proposing an answer she said that the eclipses only last six hours so they are easily missed, and furthermore, the star is so bright the detectors on NASA’s  Kepler observatory would have been saturated, ‘masking the eclipses.’

Using TESS, the stellar pair’s brightness was tracked for 27 days at a time revealing that Thuban and its companion are among the brightest ‘eclipsing binaries’, which are pairs of stars that pass in front of one another, but neither star completely concealing the other, the astronomers said in a statement. And it is by observing these eclipses that astronomers hope to get a more accurate measurement of the mass and size of each star.

Precision Precession Targeting Takes Time

Discovering eclipses in a well-known, bright, historically important star highlights how TESS impacts the broader astronomical community, said Padi Boyd, the TESS project scientist at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. In this case, the high precision  TESS data  can be used to help constrain fundamental stellar parameters at a level we’ve never before achieved, said the NASA scientist, whose forefathers in the ancient world regarded eclipses as powerful omens that foretold death and destruction.

The modern pole star, Polaris, formerly Phoenice, will get as close as it will get to the celestial north pole on March 24, 2100, but Thuban’s precision, as seen from Earth, will only be beaten by the star  Alderamin, which will take its turn at the apparently fixed north pole around 7500 AD.

This article (Ancient Egyptian North Star Eclipsed By Astronomical Discovery) was originally published at Ancient Origins and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.

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Scientists Have Unlocked The Power Of Gold Atoms But Is This Technology New Or Ancient?

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Photo Credit: Ancient Code

For those who follow the stories of the ancient Sumerian tablets first discovered in the 1800s, you know that gold is central to the story. The Anunnaki, extraterrestrials from another planet, mined for precious gold in southern Africa when they arrived on Earth. The element has unique qualities that make it invaluable for many reasons; from jewellery to electrical components, to insulation used in space travel. Today, scientists have made a big leap in unlocking the potential of 2D gold, thousands of years later.

Now, researchers from the University of Leeds in the U.K. have created the world’s “thinnest gold only two atoms in thickness. It’s so thin; they consider it 2-dimensional. They say it’s a “landmark achievement” in nano-materials with potential in the medical and electronics industries.

“The previous reported thinnest unsupported 2D gold nano-sheets have a minimum thickness of 3.6 nano-meters,” Sunjie Ye, lead author of the study, told Newsweek. “Our work represents the first fabrication of freestanding 2D gold with a sub-nano-meter thickness, that is, we have brought 2D gold to sub-nano-meter scale, which is a new focus of nanotechnology.”

Newsweek noted that researcher Stephen Evan from Leeds supervised the study. Leeds remarked that the gold sheets are a vast improvement over even gold nanoparticles.

“Gold is a highly effective catalyst. Because the nano-sheets are so thin, just about every gold atom plays a part in the catalysis. It means the process is highly efficient,” Stephen Evans, a researcher from Leeds who supervised the study, said in a statement.

“Standard benchmark tests revealed that gold nano-scale sheets were ten times more efficient than the gold nanoparticles conventionally used in industry. Our data suggests that industry could get the same effect from using a smaller amount of gold, and this has economic advantages when you are talking about a precious metal,” said Evans.

According to the article, the flexible 2D gold might be used to “develop artificial enzymes” for such technologies as water filtration and improved medical diagnostic tests.

The advanced use of gold in this manner is new to science in 2020. On the other hand, if you subscribe to the story of the Anunnaki from the cuneiform tablets of Mesopotamia, it could be a throwback to technology thousands of years old. According to Ancient Astronaut theory, the Anunnaki genetically engineered the first man or “Adamu as slaves for their gold-mining operations some 450,000 years ago. The gold was needed for the technology to save the home planet, which was falling into environmental ruin.

If we put aside scepticism for a moment and consider this to be true, could humans learn how to use gold for advanced technology to save our own environment in the future?

Much of the wisdom of these ancient beings was passed along to modern humans, but why not the technology associated with gold? For example, some of the system of mathematics and measurements we still use originated in ancient Mesopotamia. Consider that the hours and minutes that define our daily lives, based on the number 60, came from the ancients.

Zecharia Sitchin (1920 – 2010), the famous (or infamous, depending on your view?) author who expounded on the story of Anunnaki for years, was quoted in the New York Times in 2010 as the paper explored his ideas. Many people consider it bunk, but to Sitchin and a growing audience, the tablets aren’t just myth but record actual events.

Zecharia Sitchin via Anunnaki.org holds a tablet he says shows the Anunnaki passing along technology for agriculture to humans.
Zecharia Sitchin via Anunnaki.org holds a tablet he says shows the Anunnaki passing along technology for agriculture to humans.

“This is how Mr. Sitchin explains what scientists attribute to evolution. He says the aliens’ cities were washed away in a great flood 30,000 years ago, after which they began passing on their knowledge to humans. He showed a photograph of a woodcarving from 7,000 B.C. of a large man handing over a plow to a smaller man: Ah, the passing on of agricultural knowledge. Anyway, he said, the Nibiru-ites finally jetted home in their spacecraft, around 550 B.C.”

“This is in the texts; I’m not making it up,” Mr. Sitchin said, finishing his coffee. “They wanted to create primitive workers from the homo erectus and give him the genes to allow him to think and use tools.”

Today, humans are indeed thinking and using tools, but we still clearly have far to go before we could really be considered an advanced civilization. At least the use of 2D gold seems to be another small step in the right direction.

For a discussion of the Anunnaki and their quest for gold on Earth, as told in the Sumerian tablets, watch this video from Universe Inside You below:

This article (Scientists Have Unlocked The Power Of Gold Atoms But Is This Technology New Or Ancient?) was originally published at Ancient Code and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.

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