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Quantum Teleportation Has Been Reported In A Qutrit For The First Time

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Quantum Teleportation Has Been Reported In A Qutrit For The First Time
Photo Credit: Collective Evolution

For the first time, researchers have teleported a qutrit, a tripartite unit of quantum information. The independent results from two teams are an important advance for the field of quantum teleportation, which has long been limited to qubits—units of quantum information akin to the binary “bits” used in classical computing.

These proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that qutrits, which can carry more information and have greater resistance to noise than qubits, may be used in future quantum networks.

Chinese physicist Guang-Can Guo and his colleagues at the University of Science and Technology of China (USTC) reported their results in a preprint paper on April 28, although that work remains to be published in a peer-reviewed journal. On June 24 the other team, an international collaboration headed by Anton Zeilinger of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and Jian-Wei Pan of USTC, reported its results in a preprint paper that has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters. That close timing—as well as the significance of the result—has each team vying for credit and making critiques of the other’s work.

“Each of these [experiments] is an important advance in the technology of teleportation,” says William Wootters, a physicist at Williams College, who was not involved with either study.

Beam Me Up?

The name quantum teleportation brings to mind a technology out of Star Trek, where “transporters” can “beam” macro scale objects—even living humans—between far-distant points in space. Reality is less glamorous. In quantum teleportation, the states of two entangled particles are what is transported—for instance, the spin of an electron. Even when far apart, entangled particles share a mysterious connection; in the case of two entangled electrons, whatever happens to one’s spin influences that of the other, instantaneously.

Teleportation” also conjures visions of faster-than-light communication, but that picture is wrong, too. If Alice wants to send Bob a message via quantum teleportation, she has to accompany it with classical information transported via photons—at the speed of light but no faster. So what good is it?

Oddly enough, quantum teleportation may also have important utility for secure communications in the future, and much of the research is funded with cyber security applications in mind. In 2017 Pan, Zeilinger and their colleagues used China’s Micius satellite to perform the world’s longest communication experiment, across 7,600 kilometres. Two photons—each acting as a qubit—were beamed to Vienna and China. By taking information about the state of the photons, the researchers in each location were able to effectively construct an unhackable password, which they used to conduct a secure video call. The technique acts like a wax seal on a letter: any eavesdropping would interfere and leave a detectable mark.

Researchers have attempted to teleport more complicated states of particles with some success. In a study published in 2015 Pan and his colleagues managed to teleport two states of a photon: its spin and orbital angular momentum. Still, each of these states was binary—the system was still using qubits. Until now, scientists had never teleported any more complicated state.

Making The Impossible

A classical bit can be a 0 or 1. Its quantum counterpart, a qubit, is often said to be 0 and 1—the superposition of both states. Consider, for instance, a photon, which can exhibit either horizontal or vertical polarization. Such qubits are breezily easy for researchers to construct.

A classical trit can be a 0, 1 or 2—meaning a qutrit must embody the superposition of all three states. This makes qutrits considerably more difficult to make than qubits.

To create their qutrits, both teams used the triple-branching path of a photon, expressed in carefully orchestrated optical systems of lasers, beam splitters and barium borate crystals. One way to think about this arcane arrangement is the famous double-slit experiment, says physicist Chao-Yang Lu, a co-author of the new paper by Pan and Zeilinger’s team. In that classic experiment, a photon goes through two slits at the same time, creating a wavelike interference pattern. Each slit is a state of 0 and 1, because a photon goes through both. Add a third slit for a photon to traverse, and the result is a qutrit—a quantum system defined by the superposition of three states in which a photon’s path effectively encodes information.

Creating a qutrit from a photon was only the opening skirmish in a greater battle. Both teams also had to entangle two qutrits together—no mean feat, because light rarely interacts with itself.

Crucially, they had to confirm the qutrits’ entanglement, also known as the Bell state. Bell states, named after John Stewart Bell, a pioneer of quantum information theory, are the conditions in which particles are maximally entangled. Determining which Bell state qutrits are in is necessary to extract information from them and to prove that they conveyed that information with high fidelity.

What constitutes “fidelity” in this case? Imagine a pair of weighted dice, Wootters says: If Alice has a dice that always lands on 3, but after she sends it to Bob, it only lands on 3 half of the time, the fidelity of the system is low—the odds are high it will corrupt the information it transmits. Accurately transmitting a message is important, whether the communication is quantum or not. Here, the teams are in dispute about the fidelity. Guo and his colleagues believe that their Bell state measurement, taken over 10 states, is sufficient for a proof-of-concept experiment. But Zeilinger and Pan’s group contends that Guo’s team failed to measure a sufficient number of Bell states to definitively prove that it has high enough fidelity.

Despite mild sniping, the rivalry between the groups remains relatively friendly, even though provenance for the first quantum teleportation of a qutrit hangs in the balance. Both teams agree that each has teleported a qutrit, and they both have plans to go beyond qutrits: to four level systems—ququarts—or even higher.

Some researchers are less convinced, though. Akira Furusawa, a physicist at the University of Tokyo, says that the method used by the two teams is ill-suited for practical applications because it is slow and inefficient. The researchers acknowledge the criticism but defend their results as a work in progress.

“Science is step by step. First, you make the impossible thing possible,” Lu says. “Then you work to make it more perfect.”

The research has been accepted for publication in Physical Review Letters and is available on the pre-print server arXiv.org.

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Scientists Create Artificial Blood For All Blood Types To Save Lives

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Photo Credit: Getty

Researchers in Japan have recently invented artificial blood that can be used universally for any blood type. The scientists are mainly from the National Defence Medical College and have had good results testing it on rabbits.

One of the problems faced by trauma units around the world is identifying the correct blood type to administer transfusions. As of right now, medical staff uses Type O negative when they are unsure of someone’s blood type.

Here the team discusses clinical trials performed on a rabbit:

“In this rabbit model of lethal liver hemorrhage, we demonstrated that combination therapy with blood substitutes H12-(ADP)-liposomes and HbVs helped to maintain hemodynamics and hemostasis following severe traumatic hemorrhage with coagulopathy. The outcomes were as good as that achieved with allogeneic RBC/PRP transfusion, resulting in a drastic reduction of mortality.”

For their study, they used 10 different rabbits that had been subjected to a lethal hemorrhaging from a livery injury. Six out of the 10 rabbits ended up surviving, which they said is the average survival rate of a normal blood transfusion. The rabbits also did not show signs of having any serious side effects from the artificial blood.

As part of their artificial blood, the scientists also created “hemoglobin vesicles” that have a diameter of only 250 nanometres, which serve as an oxygen carrier. They need to create these vesicles as well because in the human body we have hemoglobin that is our natural carrier of oxygen to our body’s tissues.

The artificial blood contains both platelets and red blood cells and can be stored at normal temperatures for more than one year. They will store each one known as a liposome derived from the cell membrane to transfer oxygen and stop bleeding. The study was published in the journal Transfusion.

Manabu Kinoshita is an associate professor of immunology at the National Defence Medical College who worked on the team, he said: “It is difficult to stock a sufficient amount of blood for transfusions in such regions as remote islands, the artificial blood will be able to save the lives of people who otherwise could not be saved.”

This discovery will make both emergency health care workers and vampires very excited for the future.

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Study Says BPA Is Causing Severe Hormone Imbalances In 80% Of Teens

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Photo Credit: Getty

John Vibes, Truth Theory

According to new research, four out of five teenagers in the UK are having their hormones disrupted by chemicals found in plastics. Experts believe that the chemical responsible for these widespread hormone issues is bisphenol A, which is more commonly known as BPA. This chemical is often used to make plastics, and can be found in products that come into contact with food.

Since this chemical can mimic the sex hormone estrogen, it has been found to lower sperm count in men. The chemical has also been linked to a variety of illnesses including breast and prostate cancer.

A study was recently conducted at Exeter University, where a team of researchers tested the blood and urine of 94 different teens between the ages of 17 and 19 for a number of toxins and chemicals. The researchers found that roughly 80% of the teens had these dangerous chemicals in their bodies.

The study was led by ecotoxicology professor Tamara Galloway, who is convinced by the growing body of evidence that exposure to BPA has serious health risks.

The researchers noted that toxin levels decreased for teens that changed their diet to include more fresh produce, and thus less plastic contamination.

BPA is entirely legal in the UK, and while it is somewhat regulated in the United States, it still presents a serious threat. In 2012, the FDA banned the chemical in baby products, but still allowed it in items marketed to adults. Meanwhile, The European Chemicals Agency (ECA) recently moved to restrict the use of the chemical by 2020.

The agency pointed to BPA’s ability to disrupt the endocrine system, saying that the chemical has “endocrine-disrupting properties, which cause probable serious effects to human health.” The ECA noted that these side effects include infertility and aggression in girls as young as three.

There is still a great deal of controversy surrounding BPA, with experts at odds about whether or not the chemical is harmful at the levels currently found in most products. Defenders of BPA use the argument that “the dose makes the poison” to suggest that BPA is safe at low levels. However, studies like the one conducted at Exeter University continue to prove that this chemical is linked to numerous health problems.

Earlier this year, Truth Theory reported on a disturbing study which found that we are absorbing tens of thousands of plastic particles each year, just in the food we eat and the air that we breathe. It was also noted in the study, that drinking a lot of bottled water can nearly double the presence of toxins in our bodies.

About the Author

John Vibes is an author and journalist who takes a special interest in the counter culture, and focuses solutions-oriented approaches to social problems. He is also a host of The Free Your Mind Conference and The Free Thought Project Podcast

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Science

A Florida High School Is The First In The World To Provide Synthetic Frogs For Students To Dissect

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Florida High School Uses Synthetic Frogs For Dissection

Over six million frogs are killed each year for use in science labs in high schools across the world. However, now we have the technology to develop an exact replicated version of the anatomy of any species in artificial form. So, there’s no reason why we should continue to kill innocent frogs.

A high-school in New Port Richey, Florida, is leading the way to a guilt-free future, with no frog-blood on their hands. J.W Mitchell High School is the first school in the world to use synthetic frogs for their dissections in anatomy class. The school is using SynFrog’s instead of real frogs. SynFrog is developed by a company called SynDaver, based in a nearby town called Tampa.

Students dissect a SynFrog. Credit: SynDaver

SynDaver makes synthetic models of animals and humans for educational and surgical simulation purposes. Each artificial frog costs around $150, which is a lot more expensive than traditional frogs used in dissections. However, the schools can re-use synthetic frogs, which will save the school money in the long run.

Students dissect a SynFrog. Credit: SynDaver

Kurt Browning, Superintendent of Schools in Pasco County, said:

“The Pasco County School District is committed to being a leader in innovation and opportunity for students, so we are excited to announce that Mitchell High School is the first in the world to use SynFrogs in science labs, giving our students a learning experience, no other students have ever had.”

The synthetic frogs are designed to look and feel just like the real thing. However, it’s much safer to dissect compared to a real preserved frog because it’s free from potentially harmful chemicals like formalin. SynFrog’s are made out of water, fibers, and salts.

Students dissect a SynFrog. Credit: SynDaver
Students dissect a SynFrog. Credit: SynDaver
Students dissect a SynFrog. Credit: SynDaver

Founder and CEO of SynDaver, Dr. Christopher Sakezles, said:

“We’re excited to announce our revolutionary SynFrog, which is a far superior learning tool as it is designed to mimic living tissue. This makes it more like a live frog than the preserved specimens currently sold to schools for dissection labs.”

Sakezles commends Pasco County Schools for taking this monumental step to advance science education even further. “We want to thank PETA for their funding support, which helped with the initial development phase of the product and enabled us to deliver it faster than previously anticipated,” he added.

Thanks to a $150,000 donation from the animal rights organization, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the development of the SynFrog was made possible.

SynFrog. Credit: SynDaver
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Science Explains Why Certain People Experience ‘Déjà Vu’

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Photo Credit: Pexels

Déjà vu,’ the term of French origin mentions a psychological phenomenon, which occurs fleetingly at anytime and anywhere, affecting approximately 70% of the world’s population.

Most of us have had at least once in our lifetime a ‘déjà vu’ experience. It is a mysterious feeling where time seems to pass by in slow-motion, where you perceive information in such a way as if you had already experienced the current situation sometime in the distant past. However, none of us can explain it, little understand it. Researchers have mentioned numerous ’causes’ ranging from paranormal disturbances and neurological disorders and even multiple universes coexisting with ours.

When you come to experience a ‘déjà vu’ moment you feel mysteriously overtaken by a mysterious force which unconsciously tells you ‘this already happened before.’

According to a study by the Department of Neuroscience and Experimental Therapeutics at the University of Texas A & M, this psychological phenomenon has occurred in about 70% of the general population.

“Because no clear, identifiable stimulus elicits a deja vu experience – it is a retrospective report from an individual – it is very difficult to study deja vu in a laboratory,” points out Michelle Hook, a professor at the Texas A&M Health Science Center College of Medicine.

According to many studies, about two-thirds of people have experienced at least one episode of ‘déjà vu’ in their life,” added Dr. Michelle Hook.

Researchers describe the phenomenon as the result of a “technical problem” in the brain when a certain group of neurons related to the recognition and familiarity generates confusion between the present and the past.

However, Dr. Hook mentioned that according to some studies, the ‘déjà vu’ phenomenon can be attributed to a processing problem in the brain’s neural pathways.

Scientists explain it in the following way. Sensory information travels through several pathways before reaching higher cortical areas of the brain. The information travelling through different ‘routes’ usually reaches the brain at the same moment. However, there are exceptions when information does not reach the brain at the same time causing the ‘déjà vu’ feeling.

Some scientists suggest that when a difference in processing occurs along these pathways, the perception is disrupted and is experienced as two separate messages. The brain interprets the second version – coming through the slowed secondary pathway – as an independent experience. That is when the inappropriate feeling of deja vu occurs,” Hook explains.

Parallel Universe & ‘Déjà Vu.’

According to Dr. Michio Kaku, an American futurist, theoretical physicist and populariser of science, Parallel universes can explain the mysterious phenomenon and states that quantum physics provide the necessary details which suggest déjà vu might be caused by your ability to “flip between different universes.”

The idea that other universes (multiverse theory) exist has been supported by several scientists, among them Professor Steve Weinberg, a theoretical physicist and Nobel Prize winner. According to Professor Weinberg, it is possible that in the same room an infinite number of parallel realities coexist with us.

This article (Science Explains Why Certain People Experience ‘Déjà Vu’) was originally published at Ancient Code and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.

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