Michael Forrester, Prevent Disease
A monumental discovery with four years of comprehensive geo-archaeological research has failed to reach mainstream audiences for some reason. The most active pyramid site in the world dating the pyramid complex back 25,000 years has also released scientific evidence supporting the theory that the pyramids were used as an energy source. The recent study reveals energy beams transmitting electromagnetic signals unexplainable by our science in what is now documented as the largest Pyramid complex in the world. Overwhelming evidence, supported by scientific research from all over the archaeological community proves that our recorded history is wrong concerning ancient cultures, which in turn changes religion, science and academics.
Dr. Osmanagich has investigated pyramids all over the world, however his recent discovery of the Bosnian pyramids in Visoko, are nothing more than remarkable. What may be more remarkable is how he has been attacked in the media, by scientists and researchers for his incredible find.
The very first thing world powers do when their control systems are threatened (and they can’t elimate the idea) is they create a misinformation system to make people believe that powerful new or ancient technologies are a hoax. Prominent archaeologists have attempted smear campaigns on Dr. Osmanagich’s work out of fear of how the impact of his discoveries will make on their own work.
It’s more than time to rewrite our history books, however there are such vast divisions between the old paradigm thinking and the new, that conflicts between the two camps have continued to cause the regression in the understanding of ancient technology rather than its advancement.
Take note of the following facts Dr. Osmanagich details.
1) These are
the first pyramids in Europe
2) They are the biggest and largest on the planet
3) The cardinal sides have the most precise orientation on the planet
4) The concrete found is better than the best available concrete today
5) They are the oldest pyramids on the planet
6) Underneath the pyramids is the most extensive, prehistorical network of tunnels and chambers ever found
7) In these tunnels they have discovered huge cermaric blocks weighing in excess of 18,000 pounds
The discovery of the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids changes the understanding of European and world history forever. This also goes for the oldest and strongest concrete dated and the largest network of underground tunnels and chambers.
Radiocarbon dating that proves the Bosnian Pyramid Complex dates back at least 25,000 years has been revealed by an international team of scientists led by Dr. Sam Osmanagich. Discovered in 2005, the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun Archaeological Park, which houses the largest pyramid in the world, is now the most active archaeological site on the planet. The team’s findings also reveal an energy beam, 13 feet in radius that transmits an unexplainable electromagnetic signal measuring 28 kilohertz coming from the center of the Pyramid of the Sun. This phenomenon has been independently confirmed by physicist Dr. Slobodan Mizdrak, Ph.D. from Croatia, professor Paolo Debertolis, anthropologist from University of Trieste in Italy, sound engineer Heikki Savolainen from Finland and electrical engineer GoranMarjanovic from Serbia.
The energy beam is theorized by Dr. Osmanagich as the reason the pyramids were built; to provide ancient civilizations a powerful source of clean energy. This is already a widely supported theory set forth by the book “The Giza Power Plant” by Christopher Dunn published in 1998. The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is 30% larger than the largest pyramid at Giza and recent excavation has uncovered an extensive pre-historical underground labyrinth system, further evidence supporting the power plant theory.
Is it possible that the fossil fuel based energy system we now rely on could have been prevented if inventor Nicola Tesla’s work on free energy hadn’t been suppressed? Tesla’s (1856-1943) patented free energy methods were rejected due to their inability to be metered and monetized. “We urgently need to change our mistaken point of view that our ancestors were stupid and accept that they had an advanced understanding of the fabric of nature and the universe, just like Nikola Tesla, whose ideas were suppressed as they did not and do not fit in the reigning economic model,” states Phillip Coppens, author and investigative journalist. “The pyramids are proof that our ancestors knew and worked with an energy technology that we are now finally able to measure, but are still short of fully understanding. ”Coppens along with Klaus Dona of Austria and dozens of speakers attended the International Conference Bosnia Pyramid in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina which is held annually to release findings to the public.
Osmanagich has had a host of experts in various fields come to see his Bosnian pyramids, and measure anomalies associated with them. They have included the noted British scientist and inventor Harry Oldfield, who used a special camera system to photograph alleged electromagnetic (EM) waves in the vicinity of Visocica Hill.
The pyramid structures that were built in Bosnia and across the globe over 10,000 years ago cannot be duplicated by modern science and machinery in the 21st century and there is no explanation for who could have built them in our recorded history.
“We realize that this site changes our knowledge of history and as such the findings will need to withstand harsh scrutiny. Our inter-disciplinary scientific team carefully utilizes legitimate scientific research methodology, often having tests done from two or more separate laboratories,” explained Dr. Osmanagich, PhD. “Despite some initial scepticism, we now have a world-wide team of hundreds of thought leaders from numerous scientific disciplines including archaeologists, geophysicists, chemical engineers, physicists, electrical engineers, and mathematicians gathering scientific evidence to find the answers.”
Geometric Features Of The Pyramids
Based on numerous airborne and space-borne images of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, it becomes evident that the geometric features present with three sides that exhibit geometrical shape of a triangle. Even though such elements occur in nature, it is rarely, if ever, a precise shape and rarely replicated on opposite sides of a mound. In this case, two sides are equilateral triangles, with well- defined sides. Satellite imaging of the local area in the central part of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Landsat, Radarsat, Hyperion, Ikonos, courtesy of Dr. Amer Smailbegovic), indicated that there are five hills which show apparent geospatial anomalies where two or more sides are triangular. All of the aforementioned hills exhibit triangular sides and some have elements of stairs and step features on the sides with flat plateaus on the top. In the case of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun, three out of four sides exhibit evidence of geometric features. Geologic evidence is not indicative of any significant faulting or the processes of the glaciations in the area that would otherwise affect the existence, geometry and texture of these sides.
Perfect Orientation — Cardinal Sides Of The World
The measurements made by the Geodetic Institute of Bosnia and Herzegovina indicate that the sides of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (BPS) are exactly aligned with the cardinal sides of the world (North-South, East-West), which is one of the characteristics often noted with the existing pyramids in Egypt, Peru, Guatemala or China. The North side of the BPS is oriented towards stellar North (like the Great Pyramid of Egypt), in parallel with the position of the North Star.
The results of core drilling, test-well sinking and limited trenching in August and October 2005, with a follow-up in 2006 and 2007, have confirmed prior observations and, revealed that the surface of the pyramids is comprised of layered sandstone and breccia blocks, which have been manually processed and/or cut to fit the required dimensions. The binding agent found between the sandstone blocks suggest the presence of a “clastic breccia,” a multicolored conglomerate comprised out of gravel, sandstone and shale with a connective matrix or cement composed of sandy carbon particles of quartz, feldspar and flakes of mica. The flat sides of the blocks, the contact zone, and the binding agent are clearly visible. Further detailed cleaning of the contact line between the two sandstone blocks revealed that the blocks were manually processed beneath and that the surface was flat and smooth, with binding agent applied afterwards to the surface.
Equilateral Triangle Of Three Main Pyramids
Three main pyramids in the Bosnian Pyramid Valley form an equilateral triangle. The Kadastral Office from the County of Visoko performed GPS measurements of the hilltops and determined that all angles are symmetric (60 degrees). Their measurements showed that the distances among all three hilltops are the same (approx. 2,2 km) with less than 2% error, verifying the artificial structures.
Geometry, shape, orientation, constructive material — they all prove the perfect planning and execution of the complex.
Bosnian Pyramid Of The Sun
The Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun is the world’s largest 220 meters high and completely covered by soil and vegetation. During the 1950s and 1960s, local government organized tree planting activities. Trees managed to grow only on the bottom half of the Pyramid. Thickness of the soil on Western, Northern and Eastern side of the Pyramid varies from the top (20cm) to the bottom (1.5 meter). This is due to the erosion. The Southern side, which seems to be damaged, has a soil layer of 3-6 meters. That is the reason why this side has lost its regularity. Physical material evidence of shaped and well preserved stone monoliths were unearthed during the ongoing geo-archaeological campaign in 2006-2008.
Satellite radar has penetrated the surface of Northern side of the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun of four meters. Straight black lines show underground passageways — pyramidal substructure. Some of them intersect at 90 degrees.
Bosnian Pyramid Of The Moon
With its height of 190 meters, Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon is the world’s second largest: next to the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun (220 meters) and higher than Khufu’s Great Pyramid of Egypt (148 meters). It is a three-sided pyramid with the plateau coming from the East, leading to the top of the structure. Other sides (North, West, South) match the cardinal points. For the construction of this pyramid, sandstone plates and tiles were used together with the clay as a constructive material.
Archaeological field work on the Bosnian Pyramid of the Moon shows that under layers of soil and wood. There exists a huge stone/clay structure, three-sided “terraced” pyramid with paved causeway coming from East.
A Network Of Underground Tunnels
Examples of the main pyramidal complexes worldwide show that under the pyramids, underground passageways and chambers had been built. It’s the case of pyramids in Giza (tunnels connect the pyramids, sphinx, Nile), Teotihuacan (underground enlarged 4-chamber cave with passageways), Step pyramid in Saqqara (underground “labyrinth”), China (underground tunnels built from sandstone, bricks and clay), Tenerife (cave-tunnels in Guimar). Numerous field findings suggest that an extensive tunnel network exists in the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids. It is hypothesized (Principal investigator Semir Sam Osmanagich) that the tunnel system connects all of the colossal objects, water wells and other structures of importance. The current excavations in progress have already presented with findings of several shaped monoliths in the tunnels. Hundreds of meters of tunnels have been secured by wooden support. The tunnels were definitively not the mining shafts as no tools, coal, silver, gold or any other worthy material were found and they appear much older than Middle Age or Roman times.
Physicist Dr. Anna Pazdur of Poland’s Silesian University announced the news at the Press Conference in Sarajevo in August of 2008- Great number of archaeological artifacts has been found during the four years of excavations. Further cleaning in the underground tunnels confirmed huge artificial network from the pre-historical times. Samples of core drilling from the Bosnian Pyramid of the Sun and Vratnica tumulus have shown properties of the best quality concrete (analysis by Institute for Materials of the University of Zenica, Bosnia and Institute for Civil Engineering of the University of Sarajevo, Bosnia) First International Scientific Conference about the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids was held in Sarajevo on August 25-30, 2008. More than 50 experts from Egypt (20 leading archaeologists, geologists and Egyptologists,), China, Saudi Arabia, Russia, Poland, Croatia, UK, Austria, Bosnia and Montenegro concluded/recommended:
(1) that the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids is “very important archaeological locations which require further multidisciplinary research,”
(2) that “Second Scientific Conference is to be held in two years that should getter pyramid specialists from all over the world,”
(3) “Center for Pyramid Studies is to be established in Sarajevo” and recommended
(4) that “archaeological course at the graduate level is to be established in Bosnian universities as a support for the Bosnian Valley of the Pyramids project.”- Professor of classical archaeology from the University of Alexandria Dr. Mona Haggag called this discovery “writing new pages in European and World history.”
This Creepy Abandoned Italian Town Is Straight Out Of Biblical Times
Even though the residents of Craco, Italy are long gone, the majesty of this medieval hill town remains. Located in the instep of Italy’s boot, the once-thriving village stands atop a 1,300-foot cliff overlooking the river valley below.
Defensively, the town’s builders got everything right; but enemy attacks were not the cause of Craco’s demise.
In fact, the plucky village survived several occupations, plunderers, and some substantial drama brought on by the Unification of Italy. Then the Black Death arrived in the mid-1600s, taking out hundreds of residents. Yet Craco by and large survived; by 1815, it was even big enough to divide into two districts.
Regardless of its strengths, Craco found itself in a Catch-22 regarding its location. While its perch atop a hill kept marauders at bay, exposure to the elements is what effectively brought down the village. Earthquakes, landslides, floods; once residents began evacuating because of these natural disasters, things were never quite the same.
Now Craco is effectively a ghost town, reduced to nothing but ancient ruins for half a century.
It’s comforting that the grand architecture still keeps diligent watch over Craco, despite the fact that its only invaders these days are curious tourists and festival attendees.
Check Out These Amazing Photos!
In 2007, the descendants of the immigrants of Craco in the U.S. formed The Craco Society. Their website memorializes the village, saying, “Although ‘Craco Vecchio’ is no longer inhabited, it remains robust in the minds and hearts of the Crachese people everywhere.”
Craco began caving in near the millennium. Buildings in the old town are either collapsed or on the verge of collapse. One of the first monuments to crumble was the WWI statue, inaugurated in 1932.
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Medieval Wine ‘Supertanker’ Saved By Community In Wales
Ed Whelan, Ancient Origins
A unique project is taking place in the United Kingdom to rebuild a ‘one-of-a-kind’ 15 th century ship in Wales. This vessel is from the Age of Discovery and is the best surviving example from this period. The restoration is also unique because it is driven by the local community, who have taken great pride in the vessel and are committed to preserving their heritage.
The ship was found in the historic port city of Newport in southeast Wales in the River Usk. It was found during the construction of a new theatre on the waterfront, in 2002, sunk into the mud and silt. The ship was remarkably well-preserved, although some of its hull had been warped over time. It was found in what was going to be the orchestra pit of the new Riverfront Theatre. The vessel has become popularly known as the ‘Newport Medieval Ship’.
A Rare 15 th Century Medieval Ship
This vessel was revealed to have a displacement of approximately 400 tons and originally was over 100 feet (30m) in length. It was a clinker type of vessel, constructed of overlapping planks of timber, and would have been used as a merchantman. Bob Evans, chairman of the Friends of the Newport Ship told Wales Online , “in her time the Newport Ship was one of the biggest vessels afloat.”
It appears that the ship was engaged in the wine trade, which involved transporting English cloth to Iberia in exchange for wine. Evans told Wales Online that “she could carry up to 200 tons of wine in one voyage – that’s 50,000 gallons or around 200,000 bottles – truly a 15 th century wine supertanker.” Analysis of the timbers indicates that she was probably made in the Basque Country in Northern Spain. A small French silver coin was found in a niche in the timbers that indicated that it was not built before 1447.
Seized by Pirates?
Painstaking archaeological and historical research has helped to piece the story of the ship together. It probably sailed into Newport damaged in some way. There is some speculation that it was seized on the orders of the notorious pirate the Earl of Warwick, who played an important role in the Wars of the Roses . It appears that while it was berthed on a special cradle that the vessel toppled over into the inlet and was left there, until it was found in 2002.
Originally the vessel was going to be left in the mud and covered over by the new theatre. However, the authorities did not expect the intense public interest in the find. They demanded that the ship be restored, and a public campaign was launched that had the support of, among others, Sir Anthony Hopkins. The Friends of the Newport Ship group was established, and it staged a vigil by the vessels to protect it. The Welsh government gave in and agreed to fund a restoration project.
Piecing the Puzzle Together
Archaeologists are working on the massive restoration project, in a converted warehouse now known as the Medieval Ship Centre. They used newly developed software to identify every plank on the vessel. The timber was freeze-dried to preserve them and removed from the mud. Just this year, the group working on the ship received two shipments of preserved planks, including the big-framing timbers, and this allowed them to begin reconstructing the ship in earnest.
The planks are being slowly pieced together and the experts are recreating the 15 th century ship. Evans told Wales Online that “reassembling a 600-year-old ship from its original timbers is like doing a 3D jigsaw puzzle with 2,500 pieces, without the picture on the box.” It is important that the team knows where the planks go as they need to get it right the first time. They are also working with Swansea University to create a cradle that will hold the reconstructed vessel.
Impossible Without the Community
None of this would have been possible without the support of the public. This project illustrates the role of communities in preserving our heritage. Evans told Wales Online that “it is important to remember that the ship was saved by actions of the local Newport community and there is nothing like her anywhere else in the world.” Indeed, the city takes a great deal of pride in the Newport Medieval Ship and a local craft brewery has even named a beer after the 15 th century vessel.
According to the ‘Friends of Newport Ship’ Facebook Page: “The Medieval Ship Centre will be free of charge on the weekends.” The group hopes to find a suitable location for the restored 15 th century ship by spring 2020 and is then due to open to the public. A book based on the vessel and its history, the ‘World of the Newport Medieval Ship’, has been published.
This article (Medieval Wine ‘Supertanker’ Saved By Community In Wales) was originally published at Ancient Origins and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.
A Description Of The Lost Land Of Atlantis & The Reason For Its Downfall – According To Plato
Advanced ancient civilizations are a big topic of interest among researchers, historians, archaeologists, and scientists. Every single year we are gifted with a mysterious find that has us questioning the origins of the human race and imagining the cultures which roamed our planet before us. We have found much evidence to suggest that there may have been civilizations in existence before us which were intellectually, and even technologically superior. That being said, this theory is still thought to be quite fantastical; despite all of the evidence which has been brought to light in recent years to support this notion, it is still largely ignored by the mainstream. If you are interested in looking at some of this evidence, a great place to start is with author Graham Hancock, in his book titled The Magicians of The Gods.
If you start talking about the lost, ancient city of Atlantis, most people will probably think that you’re living in ‘la la’ land. Many people are unaware that this city has been seriously studied for hundreds of years. For example, we can see that it was a subject of significant importance for researchers at the Smithsonian Institution, as emphasized by their Annual Report of the Board of Regents of The Smithsonian Institution for the year ending June 30th, 1915.
In the report, author M. Pierre Termeir, a member of the Academy of Sciences and Director of Service of the Geologic Chart of France, gives a lecture regarding the Atlantean civilization. He makes a compelling case for further study of this lost city:
“After a long period of disdainful indifference, observe how in the last few years science is returning to the study of Atlantis. How many naturalists, geologists, zoologists, or botanists are asking one another today whether Plato has not transmitted to us, with slight amplification, a page from the actual history of mankind? No affirmation is yet permissible; but it seems more and more evident that a vast region, continental or made up of great islands, has collapsed west of the Pillars of Hercules, otherwise called the Straight of Gibraltar, and that its collapse occurred in the not far distant past. In any event, the question of Atlantis is placed anew before men of science; and since I do not believe that it can ever be solved without the aid of oceanography, I have thought it natural to discuss it here, in this temple of maritime science, and to call to such a problem, long scorned but now being revived, the attention of oceanographers, as well as the attention of those who, though immersed in the tumult of cities, lend an ear to the distant murmur of the sea.”
In his lecture, M. Termeir goes on to present zoologic, geographic, and geologic data to support the existence of the lost Atlantean civilization. Not only that, archaeological discoveries on the ocean floor have also raised some questions…
Plato’s Description of Atlantis
Plato, the ancient Greek philosopher, provides a description of Atlantis in his dialogue Critias, which was never completed. The following is a summary of his depiction, these are a few of many points I am taking from Manly P. Halls, The Secret Teachings of All Ages
- Atlantis was inhabited by ‘earth-born’ and ‘primitive’ human beings. One of them was wooed by the god Poseidon, who interbred with the human beings, and they eventually bore five children. This interbreeding between gods and humans is a common theme in many historical texts found throughout the world.
- The land was divided into concentric zones of land and water. Two zones of land and three zones of water surrounded the central island, which had warm springs of water and cold springs of water.
- Atlantis became an established country, with a wise government and an industry that sprung them to advanced technological heights — beyond even what we have reached today.
- Atlantis had limitless resources, wild animals, and precious metals, and was heavily populated.
- Atlantis was full of large and beautiful palaces, temples, docks, and a network of various bridges and canals that united different sections of the kingdom.
- White, black and red stones were used in the construction of public buildings. “They circumscribed each of the land zones with a wall, the outer wall being covered with brass, the middle with tin, and the inner, which encompassed the citadel, with orichalch. The citadel, on the central island, contained the palaces, temples, and other public buildings. In its center, surrounded by a wall of gold, was a sanctuary dedicated to Cleito and Poseidon.” (source)
- Atlantis had a number of gardens, full of hot and cold springs. There were countless temples, public baths, and exercise facilities for both man and animal.
- “The part of Atlantis facing the sea was described as lofty and precipitous, but about the central city was a plain sheltered by mountains renowned for their size, number, and beauty. The plain yielded two crops each year, in the winter being watered by rains and in the summer by immense irrigation canals, which were also used for transportation. The plain was divided into sections and in time of war each section supplied its quota of fighting men and chariots.” (source)
- Atlantis was massive, ruled by multiple kings who all had control over their land. Their relationships with the other kings were governed by an original code of ethics that was engraved by the first ten kings. “The chief laws of the Atlantean kings were that they should not take up arms against each other and that they should come to the assistance of any of their number who was attacked.” (source)
The Downfall of Atlantis
These are the essential points Plato makes about Atlantis. He described it as a great and powerful empire, almost magical, and said that this was the same empire which attacked the Hellenic states. He attributes the power and glory they tasted after this venture to their eventual demise, writing that the love for these ego-driven desires that soon developed among Atlantean kings “lured” them from “the pathway of wisdom and virtue.”
“Filled with false ambition, the rulers of Atlantis determined to conquer the gods into his holy habitation and addressed them. Here Plato’s narrative comes to an abrupt end, for the Critias was never finished.” (source)
Plato also tackles the subject of Atlantis in his Timaeus, writing of a story told by Solon — who himself is said to have heard the story in Egypt, passed on to him by a priest via hieroglyphic inscriptions in a temple in Sais — in which a violent cataclysm sank the continent. Thus, the Island of Atlantis completely disappeared. (source)
“A technologically sophisticated but morally bankrupt evil empire – Atlantis – attempts world domination by force. The only thing standing it its way is a relatively small group of spiritually pure, morally principled and incorruptible people – the ancient Athenians. Overcoming overwhelming odds . . . the Athenians are able to defeat their far more powerful adversary simply through the force of their spirit. Sound familiar? Plato’s Atlantean dialogues are essentially an ancient Greek version of ‘Star Wars.’ ” – Ken Feder, professor of archaeology, taken from his book “Frauds, Myths and Mysteries: Science and Pseudoscience in Archaeology.”
The Egyptian connection is also interesting to bring up here because Crantor, another ancient Greek philosopher, asserted that the Egyptian priests declared the story of Atlantis to be written upon pillars which were still preserved circa 300 B.C.
Manly P. Hall has noted that, before this cataclysm, a portion of the population left and did not succumb to the egoistic tendencies which apparently led to the downfall of Atlantis. Was the philosophic, religious, and scientific knowledge of Atlantis passed on? There are many similarities between the reported teachings of Atlantis and those of other cultures, such as the Mayas of Central America.
According to Manly P. Hall, from the Atlanteans, “the world received not only the heritage of arts and crafts, philosophies, and sciences, ethics and religions, but also the heritage of hate, strife, and perversion. The Atlanteans instigated the first war; and it has been said that all subsequent wars were fought in a fruitless effort to justify the first one and right the wrong which it caused.” (source)
“Before Atlantis sank, its spiritually illuminated Initiates, who realized that their land was doomed because it had departed from the Path of Light, withdrew from the ill-fated continent. Carrying with them the sacred and secret doctrine, these Atlanteans established themselves in Egypt, where they became its first divine rulers. Nearly all the great cosmologic myths forming the foundation of the various sacred books of the world are based upon the Atlantean Mystery Rituals.” (source)
One of the most interesting parts of this story, to me, is the fact that this place is often remembered as a place of glory, light, and abundance, which it was. But they were not immune to the dangers of avarice, either, as H.P. Blavatsky makes clear: “Under the evil insinuations of their demon, Thevatat, the Atlantis race became a nation of wicked magicians. In consequence of this, war was declared, the story of which would be too long to narrate; its substance may be found in the disfigured allegories of the race of Cain, the giants, and that of Noah and his righteous family. The conflict came to an end by the submersion of the Atlantis, which finds its imitation in the stories of the Babylonian and Mosaic flood.” (source)
This article (A Description of the Lost Land of Atlantis & The Reason For Its Downfall – According To Plato) was originally created for Collective Evolution and is published here under Creative Commons.
Eridu: The Sumerian Garden Of Eden & The Oldest City In The World?
Wu Mingren, Ancient Origins
Today, Eridu is often considered to be one of the oldest permanent settlements in Mesopotamia, and perhaps even in the world. The ancient Sumerians also believed that Eridu was the first city in the world and they documented that belief in the Sumerian King List and the Eridu Genesis . At least 18 layers of settlement are found at the site, so could the ancient Sumerian belief be possible?
Archaeological evidence shows that the earliest structures date to the 6th millennium BC. The city reached its zenith during the 4th millennium BC and continued to be inhabited until around the 7th century BC. By then, however, the city had lost its importance.
A Tell of 18 Levels
Eridu (known today as Tell Abu Shahrain) is located about 20 km (12.5 miles) to the southwest of the famous city of Ur. As its modern name indicates, the archaeological site is a tell, which is a huge mound formed over the millennia as a result of new settlements being built over the ruins of the previous ones. The tell rises to a height to 7 meters (23 feet), and is formed by 18 levels of occupation, according to the archaeological excavations. The bulk of this has been dated to the Ubaid and Uruk periods, which lasted from the 6th to 4th millennia BC.
The ancient Sumerians themselves made mention of Eridu’s antiquity. In the Sumerian King List , for example, it is written that “After the kingship descended from heaven, the kingship was in Eridug.” In addition, in the creation myth known as the Eridu Genesis , it is said to have been one of the five cities that existed before the Deluge, the others being Bad-Tibira, Larak, Sippar, and Suruppak.
The God of Eridu Temple
The patron god of Eridu was Enki (known also in Akkadian as Ea), the god of water. According to Sumerian mythology, the settlement was founded by Enki, and it was from this city that civilization was spread to other parts of the land. Although Enki was initially a local god, he rose in importance as the city grew in influence, resulting in him being incorporated into the pantheon of other cities as well. In Eridu, Enki’s temple is known as E-Abzu (Abzu may be translated as ‘Deep Ocean’, and refers to the underground spring from which all life is believed to have begun).
Archaeological excavations of the E-Abzu have revealed that the temple began as a small room containing what has been referred to by scholars as a ‘cult niche’ and an ‘offering table’. Over the millennia, however, the inhabitants built new temples over the ruins of the old ones, each bigger than the last. The E-Abzu eventually became a large ziggurat, an apt reflection of Enki’s status as a major deity. It has been proposed that the E-Abzu may have been the largest of the ancient Mesopotamian ziggurats.
Although the E-Abzu is the focal point of the site’s archaeology, there are either elements of interest. More recent excavations, for instance, have revealed that during the Ubaid period, the city was a pottery production center. This is evident in the pottery works, which had large scatterings of pottery fragments and kiln waste. Additionally, remains of fishing nets, weights, and even models of reed boats have been found at the site, suggesting that fishing was a major economic activity carried out by the inhabitants.
Eridu was the dominant city in southern Mesopotamia during the Ubaid period, but it was eventually superseded by Uruk. Nevertheless, it continued to be revered as the first city, and it retained its religious significance thanks to the E-Abzu.
It has been suggested that ecological changes, i.e. the recession of the gulf coast and the increasingly unreliable water table, were responsible for the decline of Eridu around the end of the 3rd millennium BC. The city continued to be inhabited up until around the 7th century BC, although by then it had become a mere shadow of its former glory.
In 2016, Eridu was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as part of the ‘Ahwar of Southern Iraq: Refuge of Biodiversity and the Relict Landscape of the Mesopotamian Cities’.
This article (Eridu: The Sumerian Garden Of Eden And The Oldest City In The World?) was originally published at Ancient Origins and is re-posted here under Creative Commons.
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